As in many countries of the New World, the Jewish history of Jamaica begins with conversos, the secret Jews who fled Spain. They came to the New World seeking not only new opportunities, but also to distance themselves from the Inquisition. As in many countries of the New World, the conversos rejoiced when the British invaded the island of Jamaica in 1655. It was eventually ceded by Spain to England in 1670 as part of the Treaty of Madrid. (A fascinating fact: the ship that led the British into Kingston, Jamaica, was piloted by one Compoe Sabbatha, who was, himself, a converso.)

With the island under British control, Jews felt safe coming to Jamaica, and many arrived from Spanish-held territories. Just because the Inquisition was not in Jamaica, however, did not mean that the Jews were particularly welcome. As early as 1671, there was a failed petition to expel Jews, and, in 1693, a special tax was levied on the Jewish community. In the 1700s, Jews were banned from hiring Christian house-servants.

Still, the community flourished, and the Jews, who were often involved in the sugar and vanilla trades, prospered. It is apparent, that once they were granted equal status in 1831, the Jews were actually well respected in Jamaica and even captured a respectable percentage of the seats in the legislature. By 1849, eight of the forty-seven members of the colonial assembly were Jewish. In fact, that year, the assembly voted to adjourn over Yom Kippur.

Both Sephardic and Ashkenazic Jews settled in Jamaica. At one point, there were synagogues in Kingston, Port Royal, Spanish Town and Montego Bay. Time, assimilation, and economic and political factors took their toll on the Jamaican Jewish community. By the 1980s, only a few hundred Jews remained. Today, only one synagogue remains in Kingston, (Shaare Shalom), and also a Jewish school (Hillel Academy), as well as several other Jewish organizations.

On August 6, 1962, Jamaica declared its independence from the United Kingdom.

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