Shavuot, Festival of Weeks * Chag Ha’Bikurim, Holiday of the First Fruit * Z’man Matan Torateinu, Time of the Giving of the Torah
May 17-18, 2021
Note: Holiday begins at sundown on May 16
Shavuot, the Festival of Weeks, corresponds to the 6th and 7th of Sivan. The many names of the holiday best describe exactly what is celebrated:
Shavuot, Festival of Weeks – Shavuot is the only holiday not listed in the Torah by the day and month on which it is to be observed. Rather, the Torah instructed that this festival take place the 49th day after the second day of Passover, the day on which the Omer Sacrifice was offered. The name, therefore, reflects the fact that this holiday occurs seven complete weeks (Shavuot) after Passover. In mystical terms, the number 7 represents the natural order of things, and so a complete, natural cycle has occurred.
Chag Ha’Bikurim, Holiday of the First Fruit – The natural cycle that has been completed is agricultural. On Chag Ha’Bikurim, the offering of the First Fruit of the harvest was brought to the Holy Temple in Jerusalem as a gesture of thanksgiving for the successful yield.
Z’man Matan Torateinu, Time of the Giving of the Torah – But Shavuot takes place one day after the seven weeks, which is one step beyond the natural cycle and is, therefore, also representative of a supernatural event as well. On Passover, we celebrate the miraculous Exodus of the People of Israel from Egypt. The Israelites at the time, however, were, at best, a family, a loose assortment of cousins bonded together by their mutual misery. At the end of seven weeks, however, at the base of Mount Sinai, the former slaves rose above their human limitations and, by accepting the Torah, took upon themselves a total commitment to G-d, thus creating the Nation of Israel. Shavuot is therefore also known as Z’man Matan Torateinu, the celebration of the giving of the Torah.
1) Get ready for Shavuot with our eBook “Jewish Treats on The Ten Commandments,” a beautiful twelve page overview of the Ten Commandments that were given to the Jewish people at Mount Sinai on Shavuot. Download your Free eBook here!
2) NJOP’s Shavuot Prep web series featuring Rabbi Ephraim Z. Buchwald, Founder and Director of NJOP, speaking on four important topics for the Shavuot holiday. You can find links to each of the topics here!
LAWS AND CUSTOMS Shavuot is a low-key, pensive holiday, unlike Passover with its long Seder nights and crunchy, matzah-filled days. The following are the general laws and customs for the holiday of Shavuot:
I. FESTIVAL LAWS
Shabbat and all Jewish holidays always begin at sunset of the evening before. On the Sabbath and Yom Tov [festival] candles are lit 18 minutes before sunset to welcome the holiday.
Two candles (minimum) are lit, then both hands are waved towards the face, symbolically drawing in the light of the candles and the sanctity of the Sabbath/Yom Tov. The eyes are covered and the blessing is recited.
Baruch atah Ado-nai, Ehlo-haynu Melech Ha-olam, asher kideshanu b’mitzvotav v’tzeevanu l’hadlik ner shel Yom Tov.
Blessed are you L-rd, our G-d, Ruler of the world, who sanctified us through His commandments and commanded us to kindle the lights of Yom Tov (festival).
An additional blessing, Sheh’heh’cheh’yanu, is pronounced to acknowledge the good fortune of being able to experience the holiday:
Baruch atah Ado-nai, Ehlo-haynu Melech Ha-olam, sheh’heh’cheh’yanu v’kee’manu v’hee’gee’anu la’zman ha’zeh.
Blessed are you L-rd, our G-d, Ruler of the world, Who has kept us alive, sustained us, and brought us to this season.
Evening services are held in the synagogue.
A festive meal is eaten, preceded by the Festival Kiddush, ritual washing of the hands and Ha’Motzee, which is made over two whole challot. The meal is followed by the Grace After Meals with the addition of Y’aleh V’Yavo, “May there rise and come…”, in honor of the holiday, and the Harachamon for the festival.
Changes in the morning synagogue service
- During Shacharit, the morning service, the Festival Amidah is recited.
- Hallel is a collection of Psalms that are recited on the festivals and Rosh Chodesh (the new month).
- Hallel can be found in the siddur (Jewish prayerbook).
- The Book of Ruth is read on the last day of the holiday (see below for details).
- The Torah Reading
- On the first day of Shavuot, Exodus 19:1-20:23 is read in synagogue.
On the second day of Shavuot, Deuteronomy 14:22-16:17 is read in synagogue.
- The maftir (additional reading) on both days is Numbers 28:26-31.
- The haftorah (prophetic message) on the first day is from the Ezekiel 1:1-28, 3:12.
The haftorah on the second day is from Habakuk 2:20-3:19.
- Yizkor – The Memorial Service
- The Yizkor Memorial Service is recited on the last day of all festivals — Passover, Shavuot, Sukkot and on Yom Kippur.
- While those who have passed away are no longer able to effect their own spiritual growth, the deeds of their children may result in additional merit for their souls.
- ) According to some Ashkenazic customs, those whose parents are both living leave the sanctuary during Yizkor. In Sephardic custom, everyone remains in the sanctuary while the cantor recites Yizkor.
E) A festive meal is eaten, preceded by the daytime festival Kiddush, ritual washing of the hands and HaMotzee, which is made over two whole challot. The meal is followed by the Grace After Meals with the addition of Y’aleh V’Yavo, “May there rise and come…”, in honor of the holiday and the Harachamon for the festival.
F) Mincha, the afternoon service is recited with the special Festival Amidah (and the special insertions for Shabbat, as well as including the weekly Torah reading for Shabbat Mincha, when applicable).
G) Havdalah – At the conclusion of the second day of Yom Tov, Havdalah, separating holy days from week days, is recited in the evening Amidah. This Havdalah is followed by the formal Havdalah, which consists of only the blessing over grape juice (HaGafen) and the Havdalah blessing (HaMavdil), which can be found in the prayer book
II. The Book of Ruth is read during the morning service prior to the Torah reading (On the first day of Shavuot in Israel, and on the second day in the diaspora). The reasons that we read the Book of Ruth are:
A) Acceptance of the Torah – The Book of Ruth is the story of a courageous Moabite woman who took upon herself the laws of the Torah. Since Shavuot commemorates the receiving of the Torah by Israel, the story of Ruth’s journey from Moabite princess to the wife of one of Judea’s leading citizens, is an inspiration for all.
B) The Harvest Time – The story of Ruth takes place during the period of the Counting of the Omer and culminates at the time of the wheat harvest, which is the time of Shavuot.
C) King David – According to tradition, King David, the great-grandson of Ruth, was born and died on Shavuot
A) All-Nighters: To demonstrate our love for the Torah and our appreciation for G-d’s revelation on Mount Sinai, it is customary to stay up all night either learning, listening to lectures, or simply discussing Jewish matters.
B) Decorating the Synagogue with greens: There are several reasons given for this custom:
1) More than just a recognition that Shavuot takes place at the blossoming time of spring, the custom of decorating synagogues is related to the Talmudic description of Mount Sinai when the Torah was given. Although located in the wilderness, Mount Sinai blossomed with flowers
2) When the Holy Temple in Jerusalem was standing, Shavuot was the time when Jewish farmers brought their first fruit offerings. To enhance the beauty of the mitzvah, the baskets containing the fruit were usually decorated with flowers and greenery. Thus, one of the names for the holiday of Shavuot is Chag Ha’Bikurim, the holiday of the first fruits.
C) Dairy Foods: On Shavuot, it is customary to eat dairy foods cheesecake and blintzes being particular favorites! Those who have the custom to specifically eat meat meals on festivals as a sign of joy, usually have a small dairy kiddush and then, after rinsing their mouths, have a meat meal. Again, numerous reasons are suggested for eating dairy on Shavuot:
1) Prior to receiving the Torah, the Jews did not know the dietary laws. Among the first laws that were taught to the Jews were those of kosher slaughtering. The Jews refrained from meat at that time until they were able to properly prepare the utensils and learn, with precision, the laws of shechita, ritual kosher slaughter.
2) In the times of the Temple, Jews celebrated the bounty of the land on this holiday of the first fruits. Dairy foods represent the fulfillment of G-d’s promise to bring the Israelites to a land “flowing with milk and honey.”
3) The Song of Songs, written by King Solomon, has been interpreted as a love song between G-d and the Jewish people. Chapter 4, verse 11 reads: “…honey and milk are under thy tongue,” an allegory for the sweetness of learning Torah.
4) On more mystical level, the gematria (numeric value of the letters) of the word chalav, milk, is 40, which corresponds to the forty days and nights that Moses spent on Mount Sinai learning the Torah.